Facts

All knowledge is represented with triples of {subject, predicate, object}, where subject and object are two entities and predicate is the kind of relationship between them.
Any kind of complex structures and relationships between entities can be decomposed into a set of such triples.

Try this:

engine << ["Alice", :friend, "Bob"]
engine << ["Alice", :age, 35]

To remove facts, do:

engine.retract ["Alice", :age, 35]

There are no restrictions on what constitutes a subject vs a predicate. A term that is used as a predicate in one triple can be a subject in another, allowing you to build meta-models of your data.

Any Ruby object that implements #== in a sensible way can be used in any position in a triple, except symbols that start with an uppercase latin letter and :_, which have special meaning; more on those later. Uppercase symbols were chosen because you never see them in idiomatic Ruby code, so they're fair game for overloading.

For performance reasons, it is recommended to use symbols over strings whenever possible since the engine performs a lot of comparisons. Predicates in particular should always be expressed with symbols.

Now, what can we do with this information?